Retaining walls are the structures, which can withstand an adequate lateral pressure of land and soil, and thus, these walls can hold them back. This lateral pressure can arise because of liquid pressure, earth filling, and other issues. This pressure can easily cause cracks in the cement if the base is weaker. Therefore, there is no chance that a homeowner neglects the strength of the lateral pressure of the soil. Many homeowners construct the walls, but they don’t realize which one they should build for their lands.
Here, we will explain the most common types of retaining walls, which are generally built by the homeowners or landscape designers.
Common types of retaining walls
1. Gravity retaining wall
These walls are massive because these structures counteract and neutralize the pressure given by the soil. The stability of this structure depends on its own weight to resist the earn pressure. Engineers use concrete, masonry units, or stones to construct this wall, and while designing this structure, you have to consider bearing forces, sliding, and overturning pressure because wrong calculation can ruin the project. The economic height of these walls is considered 3 meters.
2. Gabion retaining wall
These walls are also known as gabion check dam, which is well-known in the hilly regions for conservation agricultural practice. To construct this, stones, coarse rocks, and gravels are used and placed in an organized way to build layers. Layer a layer is tied using a wire-mesh box. Simply buy a rectangular wire-mesh box, and insert coarse gravel, rocks, or stones. These are effective in controlling soil erosion and used in the steep slope to provide stability.
3. Cantilever retaining wall
This wall is made of two basic structures – base slab and stem. The base slab has two sections – toe slab and heel slab. This wall is a popular type of structure because of its efficacy and strength. The section of the base slab that holds the backfill is called the heel slab, and the outer part is called the toe slab. The economic height is considered up to 10 meters and requires a very small quantity of concrete materials. But during the designing and construction, the builder must be very careful. Like the gravity wall, sliding, soil bearing, and overturning can deform the structure.
4. Counterfort retaining wall
It is like the cantilever but is stronger because of the counter forts. The spacing between the counter forts should be half of the height of the counterfort, which ranges between 8 to 12 meters. These counterforts are made at the side of the heel slab to get extra strength.
5. Anchored retaining wall
This retaining wall is built in those places where the spaces are very limited, and if you notice that the soil is quite loose in your place, then it will be better to construct an anchored retaining wall in there. This retaining wall acts excellently against the sliding and overturning pressure. During construction, deep cable wires or rods are driven sideways into the soil, and finally, the ending section is filled with the concrete materials.
These are the most popular and effective five types of retaining walls to construct in the backyards.